Mount Vesuvius: Whether History Will Repeat Itself with Pompeii?
Vesuvius ( Vesuvio ) - is a sleeping stratovolcano in southern Italy, which is located 15 km from Naples, the Campania region. It is a part of the Apennine mountain system, it has a height of 1281 meters, and the crater about 750 meters in diameter.
Mount Vesuvius, located at the junction of combining African and Eurasian plates, was formed as a result from the displacement African plate under the Eurasian one. The hot and the solid surface layer melted, becoming a liquid rock, but because the magma was less dense than the surrounding rock, it came out to the top, forming a volcano.
Mount Vesuvius - is a special "brokeback mountain" with a large conical elevation, which is partially surrounded by a rim caldera which was formed due to the destruction of a much higher structure called Mount Somme (Monte Somma). Large cone, or as the locals call it, Gran Cono arose after 79 eruptions. For this reason, Mount Vesuvius is called Somma-Vesuvius. Also, the term "Somme" means volcano caldera as a circular or semicircular wall around the shaft of the younger, inner, volcanic cone.
There are confirmed data of 80 destructive eruptions of the giant. The most famous happened on August 24, 79 year , when the Roman cities of Pompeii and Herculaneum were destroyed, founded by the hero of myths and legends, the legendary Hercules. The eruption of 1669 struck residents of the city of Naples - it began to rain and the pellets of the rain were in the form of a cross (double crystals of pyroxene).
In Italy, there are equally well-known volcanoes: Etna - on the island of Sicily, and Stromboli- on Aeolian Islands.
Many cultural figures suggest that the description of events, occurred due to the Vesuvius awakening, served as a prototype of the hell from “The Divine Comedy”, written by Dante Alighieri (1265-1321 ), where the author builds a rigorous system of the underworld, presenting it in the form of 9 laps, surrounding frozen in ice Lucifer.
The last historical eruption of Vesuvius occurred in 1944.
In case of volcanic eruption, Italy has resumed preparation of evacuation plan, the final results of which will be presented to the public at the end of 2016. The impetus for this work was the findings of scientists who watched stratovolcano activity in the last few years. It should be noted that three years ago, Nakada Setsuya, a Japanese scientist from the University of Tokyo, approached the authorities of Naples, urging them to develop a plan in case of Vesuvius awakening, in order to save the city from repeating the same fate as Pompeii.
It is reliably known that if the giant awakens, nearly 700 000 people should be evacuated from its surroundings. The “Red zone” in the Vesuvius area is the territory, where people are mostly at risk. Last year it included 18 localities and 550 000 inhabitants, but according to the new plan, the number of cities increased to 25 and the population - up to 672 000 people. The second name of the mountain is- "a time bomb", which eruption can completely destroy the Italian region of Campania, the area of 13 500 square kilometers, and cause great damage to the whole Europe and others.
According to the officials from the Department of Civil Defense in the region of Campania, Mount Vesuvius is a problem of gigantic proportions, therefore, the preparation for its eruption should be made in advance. In mid-September, the experts of the above agencies, were planning to develop a strategy for the evacuation of 25 localities, as well as a plan for disaster prevention in seven newly discovered “red” zones.
In the summer of 2016 the danger warning was sent to all the inhabitants of the “red” and “yellow” zones, the number of which, according to various estimates, ranges from 2.1 to 2.3 million people. As volcanologists say, in case of eruption of Vesuvius, “yellow” zone will be covered with stones and ashes thrown by the volcano. As for the “red” zone, here the population will face the pyroclastic flow, which consists of volcanic debris, gas, and incandescent ash particles. The speed of its movement is more than 250 km/h. The volcanologists’ warnings of impending danger were added to the Civil Defense Agency documentation, which stipulate, that even a small eruption of Vesuvius can affect quite a large area around Naples.
History teaches us, that the absence of unity of human society based on the spiritual and moral principles as well as the absence of joint actions of people on the planet, in the continent, region regarding preparation of large-scale disasters, can result in loss of lives of these people. Only advance preparation, and unity of nations, facing the impending natural hazard, gives mankind a better chance to survive, and collectively overcome the difficulties in the age-related times, of global climate changes on the planet.
The modern level of scientific and technical progress enables some developed countries to monitor the situation on a large scale with the help of satellites on Earth. Established programs and communication systems have been created, due to which it is possible to predict and forecast the state of processes, taking place in the world or at a particular local area of the Earth, and to record parameters of the physical changes.
Summing up, it is worth noting that people have all the tools to create and maintain a fulfilling life. All people should unite, because only human kindness can help people live through these years.
“Already today each person can be the one who understands, cares and shows kindness of heart toward others. After all, where two live, another two will also fit; where five live, there will always be room for another five people. If a person can already today make room in his house for the sake of “stranger” families and their children, share his or her food, clothing, and shelter with those in need, if today he or she can become an example of the highest manifestations of humanity to many, conquer his evil, do and increase good all over the world, this guarantees that tomorrow is not yet lost for humanity...” (The report “On the Problems and Consequences of Global Climate Change on Earth. МEffective Ways to Solve These Problems”)
Everything is in our hands! Good begets good!